A list of the most speedy climbs is compiled here.
Some of the records are for straight forward ascents, such as a round-trip of Quandry Peak in 1 hour, 45 minutes. Others are standing challenges much discussed by locals, but often kept out of the guide books, such as the Nolan's 14 (All 14 14er's in the Sawatch Rang -- 90 miles with 44,000 vertical feet of climbing.) in 54 hours, 57 minutes.
See the whole list at http://www.wwwright.com/climbing/speed/colorado14ers.htm